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Nursing: Evidence-Based Nursing Resources

Resources for students

Levels of Evidence

pyramid of evidence loweset level 5, case based reasoning or expert opinion, level 4 case series, level 3 case controlled studies, level 2 cohort studies, level one systematic reviews & randomized controlled trials, top

©Jessica Bell, Pyramid: Levels of Evidence used under a Creative Commons Attribution License

Study Design 101, a tutorial from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, covers the basics. Note the top levels of the pyramid —

are the gold standard for evidence. These are the types of study you will want to look for first in the library databases.

Additional information, including MEDLINE terms for types of studies, is at Evidence-Based Practice in Applied Health: Levels of Evidence, a tutorial from the University of Illinois at Chicago

Video Tutorials

Searching in CINAHL- Brief Summary

You can find CINAHL, Cumulated Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, on the database page.

  1. On the CINAHL screen, click CINAHL Headings & find a term
  2. Select term & subheadings and click Search Database
  3. Choose any desired date range in the Refine Results area
  4. Click Show More in the Refine Results area to see all choices
  5. Under Publication Type, choose an appropriate type such as Randomized Controlled Trial
  6. Check off Peer Reviewed and click Search
  7. The Check for Full Text link will open a page with a link to full text or a list of paper issues if Chemeketa has the journal

Searching in Medline - Brief Summary

You can find Medline via PubMed on the database page.

  1. Under Explore on the Medline home page, click MeSH database and find a term
  2. Select term/subheading with check box next to Restrict to MeSH Major Topic
  3. Click the Add to Search Builder button
  4. Click the Search PubMed button
  5. Click appropriate Article Types to filter your results, for example "Randomized Controlled Trial"
  6. Click an article title to see the abstract (description)
  7. Click the Check for Full Text button to see if Chemeketa has the article

Note: Not all article types may be visible on the screen. If you do not see the type you are looking for, click the Additional Filters button to find the article type(s) you want. Check them off and click the Show button to have them appear on the screen.  You still have to click on a filter to activate it.