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NUR106 - Fundamentals of Nursing

Guide to library resources and techniques for NUR106

Levels of Evidence

pyramid of evidence loweset level 5, case based reasoning or expert opinion, level 4 case series, level 3 case controlled studies, level 2 cohort studies, level one systematic reviews & randomized controlled trials, top

©Jessica Bell, Pyramid: Levels of Evidence used under a Creative Commons Attribution License

Study Design 101, a tutorial from SUNY Downstate Medical Center, covers the basics. Note the top levels of the pyramid —

are the gold standard for evidence. These are the types of study you will want to look for first in the library databases.

Additional information, including MEDLINE terms for types of studies, is at Evidence-Based Practice in Applied Health: Levels of Evidence, a tutorial from the University of Illinois at Chicago


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